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The aerospace community has a long history of using Pyroid® pyrolytic graphite and other products to serve their customers and support vital national security interests.

Rocket Nozzles

Pyroid® pyrolytic graphite has a long history of successful operation as a material of choice for solid propellant rocket exhaust nozzles, throat inserts, and guide vanes.

Pyrolytic graphite is an excellent thermal insulator in the direction normal to the deposition layer planes. The material offers the lowest known erosion resistance of any material operating under severe conditions up to flame temperatures of 3,600 oC (6,500 oF).   

The best erosion resistance is achieved by exposing the pyrolytic graphite layer plane to the hot discharge gases.  When used in this orientation for best erosion resistance, the inherent insulating properties in the material leads to a rapid rise in nozzle surface temperature and a significant reduction in the heat leakage along the nozzle body, promoting a near stoichiometric combustion process.

Pyroid® pyrolytic graphite is also available as a nozzle throat insert, compatible with most composite.

AGM-88 High-Speed Anti-radiation Missile (HARM)
(Courtesy of Raytheon Corp.)


materials. These inserts are orientated to better withstand mechanical erosion of the hot exhaust gases while promoting rapid thermal transfer away from the hot zone.

Ion Propulsion Grids

The aerospace community and NASA engineers are using more ion propulsion devises for satellite and deep space exploration probes. Ion beam sources offer spacecraft propulsion systems, longer lifetimes, more efficiency and lighter weight.

These factors are important in a lot of other applications as well, but, for ion thrusters, they are critical. Ion thrusters offer significant savings in propellant because of their high specific impulse than chemical rocket engines.

Pyroid® pyrolytic graphite has an exceptionally low erosion rate (lower than any other material) when subjected to ion energy bombardment. This material is 99.999% pure carbon, offering excellent thermal uniformity and stability, with low particle generation. And it is dimensionally stable due to its low coefficient

of expansion, making it thermally conductive and ideal for long life ion beam application grids found in high-power density-plasma cleaning/etching devices, microwave transmission devices, semiconductor ion implantation equipment and satellite thruster service.

Heat and Wear-Resistant Materials

Carbon composites are routinely used in airplane brakes where light weight, low wear rate, and temperature resistance are critical. Carbon composites also provide selflubricating features that promote extended life.

For example, a specialized brake pack for the V-22 Osprey aircraft was developed using a carbon composite coated with silicon carbide This brake surface offers exceptional friction performance over a wide temperature range and excellent wear results.

Photos courtesy of Boeing Corporation

Electronic Avionics Thermal Management

Pyroid® HT pyrolytic graphite thermal spreaders and thermal vias are a powerful new material solution in the battle against thermal heat in state-of-the-art electronic circuits and devices.

HT pyrolytic graphite thermal spreaders and vias provides engineers high purity (>99.999%) and lightweight (2.25 g/cc) spreader options with exceptional thermal performance.

HT material matches the heat spreading capability of CVD diamond at 1700 W/mK but at substantially better economics.